**The Planar Universe**

The Planar universe, is what makes this series. This is a system of travel that allows one to travel faster than the speed of light. The series completely revolves around the entire concept of this universe.

planar means "of or pertaining to a plane/ flat on a level surface"

This obviously means that the Planar universe is a two dimensional space and a one time dimension, this means that objects that are three dimensional such as humans cannot exist with in it. To achieve the ability to travel requires a space-time bubble, it creates an independent universe, that can support a third dimension. A space-time bubble acts much like an elementary particle, with in the Planar universe. An elementary particle is "any of several entities that are less complex than an atom and are the constituents of all matter."

**"Elementary particle physics aims to define the ultimate laws of nature. These laws should
encompass the smallest building blocks of matter and their interactions including gravity. At
microscopic level, there exists a "standard model for particle physics", which describes the
experimental situation at the energies available in currently running accelerators very well.
Theorists are now trying to find the underlying explanation for this model and there is growing
evidence that a theory that unifies all the basic interactions actually exists. A theory of this
kind would then also be able to describe the origin of the universe and its early development.
The groups at Chalmers and GĂ¶teborg University have a long record of important contributions to
this field, most notably in areas including string theory, supergravity and Kaluza-Klein theory.
Recent developments rest firmly on new and advanced mathematics and mathematical physics. Certain
mathematical issues in string theory have required a huge collaborative effort between
theoretical physicists and mathematicians. As a result, a large number of connections between
string/M-theory and pure mathematics have been established in recent decades, leading to enormous
benefits for both disciplines. This interaction is likely to be even more pronounced in the
future"**

Information provided by: Elementary
Particle Theory /
Mathematical Physics Groups
Institute for Theoretical Physics

More useful information Very good useful information:

ELEMENTARY PARTICLE
PHYSICS TODAY

Another source that can exist in the Planar Universe is space-time particles.

**"GIFTT (Ghassemi Institute For Technology Transfer) presented a theory to the American
Physical Society in Long Beach, California in April 2000, San Francisco in 1989, in Washington DC
in 1990, and in Columbus, Ohio in 1998. This theory proposes a solution for the missing mass of
the universe. It states that the very fabric of space-time is another state of matter, hence it
has equivalent mass. Therefore the massive fabric of space-time fills the entire emptyness of the
universe. The estimated equivalent mass of space-time (density) is calculated to be
approximately one to 1000 times the mass of one electron per cubic meter. The simple proof to
this theory is Comprised of all the present scientific observations and calculations of modern
astronomy and physics, which dictate the existence of some kind of dark matter or massive
neutrinos.
**

**
The dark matter is needed to explain the 80% of the missing mass of the universe. The problem is
that, even massive Neutrinas and dark matter can not explain the total missing mass of the
universe. The volume of space-time itself is massive because it is made of matter. Therefore the
80% missing mass of the universe is indeed the equivalent mass of the total space-time that fills
the entire cosmos. This hypothesis, which we call space-time-mass unified theory, explains a
universe in which everything (i.e., matter, energy, space, time) is all made of each other and
are all from one nature. Another proof of this theory is the existence of nuclear force. In
reality, mysterious "gluons" that are presumed to glue the nucleus together do not exist. The
universal pressure of space-time is responsible for this observed nuclear force.
**

**
Imagine you are living at the time of Aristotle. According to him (and the science of that time)
air has no mass or pressure.(since air goes to infinity!!, any mass or pressure would crush
everything!!) The wind, heat, cold, birds' ability to fly, and sound were all explained by
levitation force, heat force, etc., which were all inaccurate. At that time, two suction cups
pressed together would have been said to hold tight because of the "mysterious forces of
vacuum!!," not the external pressure of atmosphere! We all know now how wrong Aristotle was.
Now come back to the 20th century. Similar to the air theory of Aristotle, we have assumed that
space-time (the vacuum of space) has no mass and no pressure. So, the mass of the universe is
missing! And mysterious gluons hold the nucleus together. What holds the particles at nucleus
together is the external pressure of space-time. Other challenges are facing today's scientists.
The space-time-mass unified theory explains these challenges by assigning equivalent mass to the
liquid fabric of space-time which fills the entire universe. The space-time has mass and
pressure, and mathematically it can be modeled to have the properties of a liquid. If we propose
a model for the universe that is like a giant star, the relationship between nuclear force "P"
and the mass and radius of the universe can be calculated"**

Information from: Space Time Mass

Other useful information:

Vacumm

Space and Time:
Inertial Frames

Space Time

The Mysterious of
Space Time

Relativity, Space and
Time

The other source that can exist with in the Planar Universe is gravity waves.

**"Gravity waves are not something outside your daily experience. Have you ever watched the wake
that forms behind a boat? The waves you see gravity waves. Every noticed the clouds which form in
regular bands of cloud and clear sky? These clouds are the result of gravity waves. Gravity waves
carry momentum and energy from the troposphere to the middle and upper atmosphere. The gravity
waves cause a "drag" on the polar front jet stream, which affects the development of cyclones and
anticyclones and thus, the weather on the surface. Gravity waves can also modify the behaviour of
the tides in the middle atmosphere and are responsible for the large departure of the middle
atmosphere from radiative equilibrium.
**

**
A special type of gravity wave is a surface wave, which are the waves you see on the surface of a
body of water. Often the surface can be quite perturbed with any one spot on the water rising and
falling as waves from different directions and sources travel past. The atmosphere is similar,
but the waves move vertically as well as horizontally. The idea of gravity waves and their
initial theoretical understanding was introduced to an initially skeptical meteorological
community by a Canadian scientist, Dr. Colin Hines. His idea of the atmosphere as a soup full of
waves has proven correct.
**

**
A gravity wave is an oscillation caused by the displacement of an air parcel which is restored to
its initial position by gravity. The lifting force is buoyancy, while the restoring force is
gravity, so a few scientists feel they should be called buoyancy waves! We have discussed
gravity, but not buoyancy. Buoyancy is defined by Archimedes' Principle:
**

**
A body wholly or partially immersed in a fluid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight
of the fluid that it displaces.
**

**
The buoyancy force is proportional to the difference in air temperature inside and outside an air
parcel.
**

**
The time it takes for the air parcel to move back to its starting point after being displaced is
called the buoyancy period. The buoyancy period is the shortest period gravity wave that can
exist in the atmosphere. Figure 1 shows a picture of an air parcel executing a buoyancy
oscillation. Above the troposphere, where the effects of water vapour on the lapse rate are
negligible, the buoyancy period, Tb, is given by
**

**
Oscillation of an air parcel, shown on the left, at four "snapshots" in time. The time for the
parcel to return to its original position is the buoyancy period. The displacement curve on the
right shows the wave motion of the air parcel with time.
**

**
where G and Gd are respectively the lapse rate and the dry adiabatic lapse rate. The buoyancy
period is smaller in regions of higher atmospheric stability. The buoyancy period increases as
the atmosphere becomes more unstable (when the value of G approaches the value of Gd in Equation
9.1). Physically, the increase in buoyancy period as an atmosphere becomes more unstable means
that, if you displace an air parcel it will oscillate farther from the equilibrium position;
thus, it will take longer and longer for the return trip than it would in a stable atmosphere.
When the atmosphere is unstable the displaced air parcel will never return and the buoyancy
period is infinitely large. In the stratosphere the difference between the lapse rate and the dry
adiabatic lapse rate is large and the buoyancy period decreases. The buoyancy period decreases to
about 4 min in the stratosphere then increases at the stratopause as the lapse rate changes sign.
In the mesosphere the buoyancy period is about 5.5 min, decreasing rapidly in the lower
thermosphere as the lapse rate decreases above the mesopause.
**

**
Energy cascades downward from the 10 km vertical wavelength scale of gravity waves in the
mesosphere down to metre scales. The spectrum of gravity waves shows this behaviour (Figure 2).
Like the Kolmogorov spectrum of turbulence the curve is a set of straight lines on a log-log
plot, so the slope of each line is the exponent of a power law. Figure 2 is drawn for scales
appropriate to the mesosphere. At vertical wavelengths greater than about 10 km the gravity wave
spectrum depends on the source of the waves. For the source region, the slope of the curve is
about -2, though there is little observational evidence at these scales to say this with much
certainty. In the source region energy density decreases with wavelength.
**

**
General form of the gravity wave spectrum in the atmosphere. The horizontal axis is the vertical
wavelength of the gravity waves, while the vertical axis is the relative energy density (adapted
from Gardner et al.). The numbers by the lines indicate the spectral slope in each region. The
numbers on the horizontal axis are the power of ten for each tick mark (i.e. 3 means 103 = 1000).
The gravity waves of larger scale cascade their energy rapidly to smaller scales until turbulent
process continue passing the energy to smaller scales.
**

**
The next region, between about 100 m and 10 km, is the tail region of the spectrum. According to
linear saturation theory, the atmosphere above our heads always appears to contain enough gravity
waves dissipating their energy to uniformly fill in the spectrum at all wavelengths, like the
spectrum of waves in a small lake full of racing power boats. Numerous measurements show the
slope of this region of the spectrum to be about 3. The saturated spectrum is similar in concept
to the Kolmogorov spectrum, but in this case the longer wavelength waves carry much more energy
than the shorter wavelength waves, since the slope of the saturated spectrum is twice that of the
Kolmogorov spectrum. Arguments can be made using linear saturation theory to show that the
resulting spectrum of this saturation has a slope of 3"**

Information provided by: A Short Primer on Gravity Waves

More information:

Operational Forecasting and
Detection of Gravity Waves

Ripples in
Spacetime

Big Spheres to Catch Gravity Waves

A Space time bubble is much like a spinning bubble, if it is parallel to the plane it moves, if it is perpendicular it doesn't move. The bubble can slow down by switching between these two states or if extra mass is added to it. Although it is not said by the writer how much a space-time bubble can carry, but if it has so much with in it, the bubble slows down. Mass and speed is very important with in the Planar universe, bubbles that come close enough merge into one, thus making it larger and carry more mass reducing it's speed.

The Humankind Empire of Abh and the Human Union use space ships that carry a system that creates it's own space-time bubble. Using a space-time bubble requires a vast amount of energy, if a ship is to lose its power source the bubble ceases to be and all contents with in the bubble collapse on itself. Interacting between ships can only be if a space-time fusion is done by the two. Many battles take place through this method sense lasers, missiles, and other fire power cannot exist with in the Planar Universe. Only torpedoes can travel through the Planar Universe because they can create their own space-time bubble.

Communication methods between bubbles is very hard with in the Planar Universe. As you read above space-time particles, and gravity waves are very important, especially to that of communicating. Using these elements brought up a new type of communication, inter-bubble communication. But depending on range, there is another way of relaying information that is using a communication ship. Such as the one Lamhirh and Ghintec travel in during Monshou. They merge with the desire bubble and relay the information through electro-magnetic waves. These ships can create their own space-time bubble and sense they are small they can travel faster in the Planar Universe.

To enter the Planar universe you need to enter through a gate, these gates are spread all across the universe. Gates can only be open by using a large amount of energy. Once the gate loses it's source of power it will the close. This means gates can either be open or closed, a close gate looks like a particle releasing energy, while an open gate looks like a sphere emitting dim light.

Before the Gates were discovered to be portals into the Planar universe, they were use as a source of energy for interstellar ships. Closed gates can be moved in normal space but it does not determine its position in the Planar Universe. This simply means two gate that are millions of parsecs apart can be only a few miles apart in the Planar Universe.

Gates inside the Planar Universe looks like a disfigured spiral, as Ghintec stated you take a "random guess" in exiting the Planar Universe, but this "random guess" is done through computer calculation your chances of exiting in the desire area in the normal universe is rather high.

With in the apendix of Seikai no Senki I shows a map of the Planar Universe. (I'll have mine up soon ^^;;)

The Planar Universe can be mapped out into a flat sphere. With in a certain area it is broken up into 14 distinct sections, eight of which is the Empire and governed by the respecting Royal family. The other four are parts of the four nation alliance, consisting of the Federation of Hania, The Greater Republic of Alcon, The People's Sovereign Union of planets and the Human Union. The two extra areas of the Universe is governed by no one, and the inter most section of the it is were so many gates are packed together into a cluster, not even a space-time bubble is unable to enter.

Traveling between each ring you come to a gap, these gaps become larger the further you travel. Beyond the 12th ring has not been explored

I hope this help in understanding the series, ^_^ although you ended up with a physics lesson as well.

Terms and names in Baronh (the Abh language)

The planar universe (fadh)

space-time bubble (flasath)

stationary state (scobrtamh)

mobile state (noctamh)

Space time generator (flathatia)

space-time merging (gor ptarhoth)

space-time separation (gor rytcosec).

space-time particles (spuflasath)

inter-bubble communication (droch flactaider)

communication ships ( pairriac).

ordinary universe (dadh)

gates (saudec)

Information provided by:

Seikai no
Monshou (Crest of the Stars)

Over all information provided by Seikai no Monshou (Crest of the Stars), Gateway to Seikai and the anime it self.